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The bar was in Madrid, where the Cajal Institute, Spain’s oldest academic center for the study of neurobiology, was holding an international meeting.
Likewise, Michael Meaney, a Mc Gill neurobiologist, had been talked into attending by the same colleague, who thought Meaney’s research into animal models of maternal neglect might benefit from Szyf’s perspective.“I can still visualize the place — it was a corner bar that specialized in pizza,” Meaney says. Since the 1970s, researchers had known that the tightly wound spools of DNA inside each cell’s nucleus require something extra to tell them exactly which genes to transcribe, whether for a heart cell, a liver cell or a brain cell.
“Moshe, being kosher, was interested in kosher calories. One such extra element is the methyl group, a common structural component of organic molecules.
The methyl group works like a placeholder in a cookbook, attaching to the DNA within each cell to select only those recipes — er, genes — necessary for that particular cell’s proteins.
Because methyl groups are attached to the genes, residing beside but separate from the double-helix DNA code, the field was dubbed epigenetics, from the prefix (Greek for over, outer, above).
Originally these epigenetic changes were believed to occur only during fetal development.
But pioneering studies showed that molecular bric-a-brac could be added to DNA in adulthood, setting off a cascade of cellular changes resulting in cancer.Sometimes methyl groups attached to DNA thanks to changes in diet; other times, exposure to certain chemicals appeared to be the cause.Szyf showed that correcting epigenetic changes with drugs could cure certain cancers in animals.And then, in 1992, two young scientists following in Freud’s and Darwin’s footsteps actually did walk into a bar.And by the time they walked out, a few beers later, they had begun to forge a revolutionary new synthesis of how life experiences could directly affect your genes — and not only your own life experiences, but those of your mother’s, grandmother’s and beyond.Geneticists were especially surprised to find that epigenetic change could be passed down from parent to child, one generation after the next.